This research project investigates the interaction between the auditory processing of the acoustic components of speech sounds and phonological development during infancy. Are the acoustic cues of the speech signal similarly used and organized -weighed- from birth to adulthood when perceiving speech sounds? During the first year of life, infants become better at discriminating speech contrasts of their native language but they do not show the same improvement for non-native speech contrasts. The present research hypothesizes that auditory exposure to a specific language input favors the processing and weight of certain acoustic cues. Beyond the typical psycholinguistic approach, this project takes advantage of recent auditory models of speech processing describing the acoustic components of the speech signal. This new approach is originally combined with neuroimaging techniques to measure the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of these speech acoustic components during the early stages of human language development.